Alan Kay and Lev Manovich - the remaking of the media

In education, “remediation” is a term that means to remedy a situation, such as a student not meeting academic expectations and taking “remedial” classes to fix the “problem”. For Manovich, however, remediation is less the reversal of prior damage, it is instead the taking of  communication of any format (text, number, or art) and using the computer to enhance our experience with these forms of media. “It is essentially the appropriation of the content of one medium into another.” (Mullin, 2012) For Alan Kay, the computer and his graphic user interface presented an opportunity to “remediate” the “processes of thinking, discovery, decision making, and creative expression.” (Manovich, 2016) The intent, of course, was not just to recreate the old, but to infuse it with new properties to enable humans to gain further insight and knowledge. Manovich, 2016)


I wrote the following paragraph last year, and do not think I can do better this year.

“In education, that is the goal we essentially strive for each day with our students: to get them to communicate, learn and create in new ways. Our responsibility as teachers is more than just filling their heads with information, but guiding them to insights, creating engaging lessons that will keep them inspired, encourage them to seek more, and create more. Indeed, the ability of computers to act as gateways to the meta-medium has transformed education already. In simplest views, distance learning has evolved from the process of sending postal mail, to telephones, to media such as videos and DVDs. Now we can interact in real time from all corners of the world. Manovich discusses the unique properties of the metamedium that has evolved as computers and technology have evolved, and the interactivity of education and learning is one of the most impressive, in my opinion.” (Granata, 2018)



Manovich, L. (2016). Software takes command. New York: Bloomsbury.

Mullin, C. E. (2012, November 02). Remediation. Retrieved February 01, 2018, from






Computer Science for Teachers Spring 2019

Computer Science for Teachers Spring 2019

Here is the online home for CS for Teachers at Pace University for Spring 2019.

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