Week 10 Breadcrumbs

Expectancy x value = motivation (Wigfield,Tonk, Eccles)

Motivation comes from the combination (multiplication) of the expectancy of success and the value that one places on the achievement of that goal.  Both factors are necessary for motivation, as one without the other with yield an empty motive. 

As teachers, the struggle is to find and foster both of these qualities within our students.  In order to raise low expectations, we must adjust task difficulty to be attainable for student achievement - neither too difficult nor too easy.  In doing so, students are able to succeed at a given task and feel confident and competent to continue to push themselves.  In order to raise value to a particular topic, we must show students how these tasks apply to their lives and their futures.  It also helps to show that people whom our students respect appreciate the accomplishment of these tasks. 

Carole Ames developed the TARGET approach when it comes to student motivation.  

  • Task
  • Authority
  • Recognition
  • Grouping
  • Evaluating
  • Time

A task should be authentic and tangible, meaning that it should provide some utility and real-world relation for our students.  The task should also be attainable but challenging - not too easy, so students get bored, but not too difficult so that students are discouraged. 

In order to add autonomy to a task, students should be given choices whenever possible, to encourage ownership and a pursuit of personal interests.  

It is important to recognize student achievement, success, and progress.  However, we need to be careful to applaud qualities such as effort, perseverance, and grit, rather than standalone intelligence.  

When it comes to grouping students for the completion of a task, there are 3 main approaches - cooperative, competitive, and individualistic.  In order to encourage a sense of belonging, cooperative groupings are shown to be most effective. 

When evaluating, it is important to incorporate both cooperative and individual grading structures, so that students are held accountable for both their teamwork and cooperative effort but also for their own individual contribution and understanding.  

It is important to give students sufficient time to complete a task.  This can be a challenge when you are teaching to a specific curriculum with a deadline, but we must try to accommodate students learning levels as much as possible. 

ED 631 - Educational Psychology- Spring 2018

ED 631 - Educational Psychology- Spring 2018

Here is our online home for ED 631 for Spring 2018.

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