Multimedia Learning Instruction

Upon viewing the video, I found the lecture to be interesting, informative and allowed me to self-reflect on my own teaching practices. Richard Mayer mentioned mostly based on how to engage a level of cognitive activity rather than physical activity based learning. He reminded that even if we instructed a lecture to become a physical activity-based instructional learning to engage students, they are not really learning unless there are some level of cognitive activity that comes with the physical learning because the cognitive activity is where the learning takes place. He introduced slides taken from medical school, information that is complex into a way to break down information enough for the audience to process. He also showed ways in which learning is not effective and areas where the instructional method is effective using the powerpoint slides.

He also mentioned about how complicated material that is introduced to the audience all at once would violate the segmenting principle. The segmenting principle happens when the information includes too much extraneous information on one slide, which it does not allow people to process what they are seeing or learning. Step by step information processing requires segmenting or partitioning of concepts rather than a whole concept introduced all at once. He brought up a great point about multimedia learning instruction, using captioning and narrative animations may enable learners to remember only 25% of knowledge from it. Simply because the retention to remember while reading text and listening may hinder concentration since some people would like to read the text on their own instead of having a narrative to read for them. Watching animation and on-screen captions and text loses the opportunity for people who want to read it. Adding redundant texts with animated video depresses performance. It's better to have voice and graphics, rather than voice graph and on-screen text.

In my classroom, I can incorporate fewer and fewer chunks of information on each slide, and trying to balance the amount of material introduced that are extraneous information and which are of very most importance specifically for the chemistry regents. The professor also discussed about the coherence principle, where people learn more deeply when extra material is excluded rather than included. However, the challenge is finding the right amount of information that would not overload their working memory to process all of the concepts learned in class. A strategy would be to use more assessments on students and introducing teaching methods that require a lot of cognitive activity to stimulate the learning. The lecturer also pointed out that with high levels of cognitive activity of classroom learning, the student learns the most or more deeply when they are conversing rather than just simply reading or working on a passage on their own. Engaging students in a conversation would motivate them to go deeper and make sense out of what they are learning and why they are learning these essential concepts.  

For my classroom instructional methods, I can better improve my teaching practices by incorporating the segmenting principle and doing some research on how much material would be considered enough amount of information for the teenage students to process in a 45-minute class. I also use do now tracker handouts, check for understanding on powerpoint slides to keep track of whether they understand the material, followed by an exit slip. The challenge of being an educator is trying to see the perspective of a student and how they view something as opposed to how we process information as adults. A student in college or graduate school learns much differently than learning in high school or middle school, etc. The solution would be to think in the perspective of the student and try to see it from their level, which is the essential challenge of differentiating for all different kinds of students with various levels in one classroom, Some are visual learners, some are audio learners, and some are simply not motivated or not interested in learning science, and there needs to be a right balance in order to connect that instructional learning to all students in the classroom. The right amount of information that is introduced for the students to remember is the key. Even for me as a New York City Teaching Fellow, I was overwhelmed with the amount of material everyday during the summer training from morning to afternoon with a non-stop fire hose of information thrown at me at once. It was too much information to process and reflect on, especially with little amounts of sleep, thus interferes with retention time. Additionally, one of the science professors in my biology class I have taken as an undergraduate mentioned that an average human being could retain only up to 50-55 minutes of information they can process. Any longer lecture than that with no break will lead to a reduction of retention time, and thus learning and reflection cannot be effective.

Additionally, what caught my attention was when the lecturer mentioned about the topic studies on sex, death, and filth. These topics would grab the students' attention because they are seldom mentioned during any types of lecture. However, it does create conflicts for students and teachers because it may cause some students and teachers to be particularly uncomfortable with these topics as it could lead to a lot of issues from the administration.

In essence, I found the video to be particularly helpful, interesting, and engaging on the topic of multimedia learning in the classroom. I would like to continue learning more about Richard mayer's idea on multimedia learning so that I can incorporate these teaching principles into my classroom.