Unit Plan Draft

Unit Plan

Your Name

Clarissa Martinez

Unit Name

Genetics and Biotechnology

Length of Unit

5 Lessons per week for 4 weeks, 20 periods

NYS Core Curriculum

List the number and text of the standard. If only a portion of a standard is being addressed, then only list the relevant part[s].)

Intermediate Core Curriculum LE- 2.2a In all organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation.

 

Intermediate Core Curriculum LE- 2.2b Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and recessiveness.

 

Intermediate Core Curriculum LE- 2.2c The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance. Some models of prediction are pedigree charts and Punnett squares.

 

2.1a Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.

2.1b Every organism requires a set of coded instructions for specifying its traits. For off- spring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2.1c Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus.

2.1f In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that under- lies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular “bases”) and replicated by means of a template.

2.1g Cells store and use coded information. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.

2.1i The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.

2.1j Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.

2.1k The many body cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions. This is because different parts of these instructions are used in different types of cells, and are influenced by the cell’s environment and past history.

2.2e Knowledge of genetics is making possible new fields of health care; for example, finding genes which may have mutations that can cause disease will aid in the development of preventive measures to fight disease. Substances, such as hormones and enzymes, from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of replacing missing body chemicals.

5.2h Disease may also be caused by inheritance, toxic substances, poor nutrition, organ malfunction, and some personal behavior. Some effects show up right away; others may not show up for many years.

2.1h Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Any alteration of the DNA sequence is a mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.

2.2d Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter genes. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it.

5.2i Gene mutations in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division, called cancer. Exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.

2.2a For thousands of years new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals have resulted from selective breeding for particular traits.

2.2b In recent years new varieties of farm plants and animals have been engineered by manipulating their genetic instructions to produce new characteristics.

2.2c Different enzymes can be used to cut, copy, and move segments of DNA. Characteristics produced by the segments of DNA may be expressed when these segments are inserted into new organisms, such as bacteria.

1.2c The components of the human body, from organ systems to cell organelles, interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. To successfully accomplish this, organisms possess a diversity of control mechanisms that detect deviations and make corrective actions.

 

National Science Education Standards

 

Next Generation Science Standards

What standard(s) are most relevant to the learning goals?

 

List the number and text of the standard. If only a portion of a standard is being addressed, then only list the relevant part[s].)

 

Common Core Standards

List the number and text of the standard. If only a portion of a standard is being addressed, then only list the relevant part[s].)

Common Core Literacy Standards

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text's explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.

 

 

 

Instructional Context

What do you know about your students that will inform this unit? How does this unit connect with previous ones?  What are difficulties that you anticipate for students’ understandings of concepts and skills?

 

What I know about my students that will inform this unit:

I will know their learning styles from a survey taken in the beginning of the year to incorporate into lesson plans and activities. Students personal likes, dislikes, beliefs learned throughout the year which I can use to engage students in content and conversations around content. Reading levels will have been assessed earlier in the year, to choose appropriate Lexile Level reading sources. Students will have learned the process of meiosis, learned in previous unit to refer to when speaking about traits, genetic variation and selective breeding.

Difficulty anticipated for students understanding of concepts and skills:

Anticipated difficulty with vocabulary words in text and scientific articles. They will most likely struggle with understanding the difference between a chromosome, a gene, and an allele. Students commonly confuse selective breeding with genetic modification since they are both controlled processes. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disciplinary Rationale

What is the central focus and purpose for the content you will teach in this unit? What are some common errors or misunderstandings of students related to the central focus of the unit?

Central focus of the unit:

To lead students to an understanding of biological traits and heredity. Students will understand the roles that genes and chromosomes have in how traits are passed through generations by sexual or asexual reproduction in organisms. This understanding will guide them to the concept of selective breeding and how it can be used to produce desired traits in plants and animals.

Common errors or misunderstandings of students related to the central focus of the unit:

-Genes and chromosomes are the same.

-Students do not distinguish between sexual and asexual

reproduction

-All hereditary traits are passed through the blood.

-All mutations are harmful.

-Dominant traits are those that will take over in a population.

-All traits are determined by a single gene.

-Since humans are more complex, they have more chromosomes.

-Genetic engineering and selective breeding are synonymous

 

 

 

Theoretical Principles/and or Research-Based Practices

Identify theories, course readings, or readings from professional journals that support your learning approach.

John Dewey’s theory of education, learning through meaningful activity. This theory supports that person's life experiences form the basis for his/her observation and reflection on what has been encountered, encourages learning. He says the process of learning is more than doing a task or activity; it also requires reflection and learning from this. 

Using Dewey’s model of learning, students will have experiences, where they interact with content and then reflect, and come to conclusions. Learning to think is the main idea of Dewey’s theory where reaching a conclusions related to an experience. This will build a student’s critical thinking skills and connect an experience to content. This approach involves minimal focus on the teacher and allows for a student centered, hands on experience. Planning lessons that encourage interaction with the content presented and reflective thinking, as well as creating an environment where students can structure their own learning, by having options.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Academic Language

Identify the academic language function(s) in this unit.

Identify the content language (vocabulary) that students need to know to support learning in this unit.

 

Genetics                                                                                   Heterozygous                                    Dominant

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)                    DNA                                       Recessive

Genotype                                                                    RNA                                       Traits

Phenotype                                                                 Meiosis                                                Selective Breeding

Allele                                                                           Nucleotide                               Genetic engineering

Homozygous                                                              Gel electrophoresis                 Offspring       

 Pure Bred                                                                   Punnet Square                         Mutation

Transgenic                                                                   Plasmid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE BIG IDEAS

 

What enduring understandings (big ideas) are desired for the year (course)?

What are the essential questions for the year (course)?

-Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

-Mendelian genetics (selective breeding, punnet square and pedigree charts)

-DNA segments contain information for the production of proteins necessary for growth and function of cells.

-Each person has their own unique set of DNA which codes for their traits.

-Protein formation and DNA through transcription and translation

-All living things are based on a universal genetic code that drives biochemistry and reproduction.

-Diseases and mutations can be inherited or caused by other factors.

-GMOs are created through transformation, using enzymes to cut and paste desired DNA.

-The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-How do genes contribute to an organism’s survival?

-How can sexual reproduction be manipulated?

-Why are genes important in determining hereditary traits?

-What processes are responsible for life’s unity and diversity?

-How can a mutation be helpful?

-Why do I look the way I do?

-How can I predict what traits will be passed from one generation to another?

-What are the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis?

-Why is selective breeding important to me?

-What causes mutations?

-What causes disease?

-How is genetic material passed from parents to their offspring?

-How are spontaneous mutations and genetic engineering similar and different?

-What uses of genetic engineering methods are potentially beneficial and harmful to society?

-How are GMOs made?

-How does genetic research affect you?

-What are some pros and cons of using genetic modification for agriculture, medicine, art, or entertainment?

-What causes a mutation?

-How can a mutation change or not change mRNA sequence?

 

What will students understand as a result of this unit?      (related to above)

 

What “essential” and “unit” questions will focus on this unit?      (related to above)

Students will know that organisms reproduce, develop, have predictable life cycles, and pass on heritable traits to their offspring. Hereditary/genetic information in chromosomes is contained in molecules of DNA. Genes are sections of DNA that direct syntheses of specific proteins associated with traits in organisms. Known patterns of inheritance can be used to make predictions about genetic variation. Mutations can be beneficial as much as it can be lethal.

The expanding ability to manipulate genetic material, reproductive processes, and embryological development creates choices that raise ethical, legal, social, and public policy questions. Innovative technology has allowed us to apply our knowledge of genetics, reproduction, development, and evolution to meet human needs and wants.

 

 

-What are the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis?

-Why are genes important in determining hereditary traits?

-What processes are responsible for life’s unity and diversity?

-Why is selective breeding important to me?

-What causes mutations?

-What causes disease?

-How is genetic material passed from parents to their offspring? 

-What uses of genetic engineering methods are potentially beneficial and harmful to society?

How are GMOs made?

-How does genetic research affect you?

-What are some pros and cons of using genetic modification for agriculture, medicine, art, or entertainment?

 

 

Learning Goals/Objectives for this Unit

Students will be able to… (associated with the content standards)

Learning Goals/ Objectives :

-Analyze scientific articles to be able to cite evidence to support claims.

- Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.

SWBAT

-Describe the relationship between DNA, genes, chromosomes, proteins, and the genome.

-Illustrate how a sequence of DNA nucleotides codes for a specific sequence of amino acids.

- Explain that a gene is a section of DNA that directs the synthesis of a specific protein associated with a specific trait in an organism.

-Explain how the type of cell (gamete or somatic) in which a mutation occurs determines heritability of the mutation.

-Predict the possible consequences of a somatic cell mutation.

-Describe the cell cycle as an orderly process that results in new somatic cells that contain an exact copy of the DNA that make up the genes and chromosomes found in the parent somatic cells.

-Explain how the cell cycle contributes to reproduction and maintenance of the cell and/or organism. 

-Use Punnett squares, including dihybrid crosses, and pedigree charts to determine probabilities and patterns of inheritance (i.e., dominant/recessive, co-dominance, sex-linkage, multi-allele inheritance).

-Analyze a karyotype to determine chromosome numbers and pairs. Compare and contrast normal and abnormal karyotypes.

- Explain how crossing over and Mendel’s Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms.

-Describe how exposure to radiation, chemicals and pathogens can increase mutations.

-Explain that mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene.

-Recognize that mutations may be harmful, beneficial, or have no impact on the survival of the organism.

-Compare and contrast random, spontaneous, naturally occurring changes in DNA (mutations) against changes in DNA that are induced or directed by humans, such as in genetic engineering.

-Use photographs to discuss specific examples of GMOs and their potential impact on society.

-Explain the concept of genetic engineering and discuss tools used to engineer transgenic organisms.
-Explain how recombinant DNA is made and then used in gene cloning, DNA sequencing, and polymerase chain reaction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DETERMINE ACCEPTABLE EVIDENCE

 

What evidence will show that students understand the big ideas [BO], essential questions [EQ], learning objectives [LO] the unit?

 

 

 

Performance Tasks, Projects                                             What BI, EQ, LO assessed?

-Bioethics Essay Presentation: Write an essay either defending or opposing genetic engineering. Cite scientific articles to support your claims.

-Family pedigree activity that will show the inheritance of at least 1 genetic trait using celebrity families or your own family.

 

-Genes activity heads or tails picks your genes.

Bioethics Essay:

BI The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

EQ How does genetic research affect you?

EQ What are some pros and cons of using genetic modification for agriculture, medicine, art, or entertainment?

EQ What uses of genetic engineering methods are potentially beneficial and harmful to society?

 

Family Pedigree:

BI Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

BI Mendelian genetics (selective breeding, punnet square and pedigree charts)

EQ Why are genes important in determining hereditary traits?

 

 

 

 

 

Quizzes, Tests, Essays                                                      What BI, EQ, LO assessed?

Quiz 1: Mendelian genetics

Quiz 2: Central Dogma and Mutations (DNA, RNA and Replication) 

Quiz 3: Use genetic code chart to decipher proteins and identify types of mutations.

Unit Exam

Bioethics Essay: Write an essay either defending or opposing genetic engineering. Cite scientific articles to support your claims.

 

Quiz 1:

BI Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

EQ How can I predict what traits will be passed from one generation to another?

EQ Why is selective breeding important to me?

EQ How can I predict what traits will be passed from one generation to another?

EQ -Why are genes important in determining hereditary traits?

 

Quiz 2:

BI Protein formation and DNA through transcription and translation

EQ What are the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis?

Quiz 3:

BI All living things are based on a universal genetic code that drives biochemistry and reproduction.

BI Diseases and mutations can be inherited or caused by other factors.

EQ What causes a mutation?

EQ How can a mutation change or not change mRNA sequence?

 

Unit Exam BI:

-Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

-Mendelian genetics (selective breeding, punnet square and pedigree charts)

-DNA segments contain information for the production of proteins necessary for growth and function of cells.

-Each person has their own unique set of DNA which codes for their traits.

-Protein formation and DNA through transcription and translation

-All living things are based on a universal genetic code that drives biochemistry and reproduction.

-Diseases and mutations can be inherited or caused by other factors.

-GMOs are created through transformation, using enzymes to cut and paste desired DNA.

-The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

Bioethics Essay:

BI The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

EQ How does genetic research affect you?

EQ What are some pros and cons of using genetic modification for agriculture, medicine, art, or entertainment?

EQ What uses of genetic engineering methods are potentially beneficial and harmful to society?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Evidence                                                                    What BI, EQ, LO assessed?

(e.g. observations,  homework, classwork)                                                 

 

-Exit tickets

-Labs

-Participation in class and group work/activities

-Worksheets

-Homework

-Class discussion

-Guided notes

-Turn and Talks

-Stop and Jot

-Text and video analysis

-Current events on Bioethics and genetic engineering

-Class presentations

 

 

 

 

-Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

-Mendelian genetics (selective breeding, punnet square and pedigree charts)

-DNA segments contain information for the production of proteins necessary for growth and function of cells.

-Protein formation and DNA through transcription and translation

-All living things are based on a universal genetic code that drives biochemistry and reproduction.

-Diseases and mutations can be inherited or caused by other factors.

-GMOs are created through transformation, using enzymes to cut and paste desired DNA.

-The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

 

 

 

 

Student Self-Assessment                                                            What BI, EQ, LO assessed?

Students write a letter using the following sentence starters:

-I feel good about…

-I used to… but now I…

-Two things I will remember about what I have learned in this unit…

-A strategy that really helped me learn better is…

-If I could do something again differently, I would…

-One thing I will remember to do in the future is…

-One thing I really want to learn is...

-I will take these steps to reach (blank) goal…

 

Using some of the BI to answer the two things I will remember portion of letter.

 

 

 

 

 

-Hereditary information in genes is inherited and expressed.

-Mendelian genetics (selective breeding, punnet square and pedigree charts)

-DNA segments contain information for the production of proteins necessary for growth and function of cells.

-Each person has their own unique set of DNA which codes for their traits.

-Protein formation and DNA through transcription and translation

-All living things are based on a universal genetic code that drives biochemistry and reproduction.

-Diseases and mutations can be inherited or caused by other factors.

-GMOs are created through transformation, using enzymes to cut and paste desired DNA.

-The manipulation of DNA raises many ethical issues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLAN LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND INSTRUCTION

 

Given the targeted understandings, other unit goals, and the assessment evidence identified, what knowledge and skill are needed?

 

 

Students will need to know…

Major content from this unit you expect students to master (i.e. causes and results of Civil War)

Students will gain an understanding of how genetic material carries information about their observable traits. They will need to know how genetics explains what makes you unique, why you look like other members of your family, and why some diseases run in your family. Students will need to know Mendel’s laws of genetics, and selective breeding. Understand how the process of translation can cause mutations (good or bad) and how to determine the type of mutation occurring. For example, sickle cell anemia is a mutation which is beneficial in protecting against malaria but causes sickle cell attacks and increased rate of infection. The genetic engineering topic will give students an opportunity to explore various disabilities and determine whether an accommodating device for a particular disability is adaptive or assistive. Know about the latest genetic research and the issues around the personal, societal, and medical possibilities and questions.

 

 

 

 

Students will need to be able to...

Skills emphasized in this unit (i.e. interpreting cartoons)

-Explain Mendel’s laws.

-Use Punnet squares to predict genotypes and phenotypes.

-Use pedigree diagrams to answer questions about allele history.

-Create their own pedigree diagrams given information about allele history.

         -Make models of DNA and RNA.

-Compare and contrast the structures of DNA and RNA.

-Recognize the importance of base-pairing in replication, transcription, and translation.

-Model the process of protein synthesis.

-Differentiate between the three types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) and their roles in protein

 

What lessons, in order, will you plan in order to insure that students learn and demonstrate their learning?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

*Lab Safety

 

Mendelian Genetics-

Punnet Squares

(Dominant, Recessive Genes)

 

Mendelian Genetics-

Pedigree Charts

 

*Family Tree assignment due Friday

 

Human Genetics- Looking at your own traits activity

 

 

Introduction to DNA- Function and Structure

DNA replication

 

*Quiz 1

 

Construct DNA/RNA molecule and name  bases and functions activity

 

*Hand in Family Tree

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Protein Synthesis-

Central Dogma

(Transcription and translation)

Protein Synthesis

Control of Gene Expression-Gene Mutations

 

-Causes (Genetics, environment, etc.)

 

(Gel Electrophoresis lab)

Group activity Mutations scenarios: Identifying types of mutations using genetic code chart.

 

 

Control of Gene Expression Diseases

 

-Causes (Genetics, mutations, virus, pathogen, bacteria, environment, etc.)

- Cancer cell function

*Quiz 2

 

Causes of Disease-

Communicable/Non-communicable

Activity

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Karyotyping

(Karyotype Lab: Detecting genetic defects)

 

What is a GMO?

How is a GMO created? And why?

(Transformation)

*Assign Bioethics  Essay/presentation

(1-2 page paper)

How are GMOs beneficial or harmful?

‘Hunger Games’ Science: Investigating Genetically Engineered Organisms Activity

 

GMO Video (Food Inc.)

With guided notes questions

*Quiz 3

-Biotechnology to detect and treat disease

 

-Bioethics (genetic engineering, in vitro, GMO foods etc.)

 

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

 

In class research for Bioethics essay/ presentation

 

Presentations of Bioethics essay

 

Presentations of Bioethics essay

 

Begin Exam review

 

Review for Exam

(Play Jeopardy)

Answer

 

Unit Exam

 

 

 Differentiation/ Planned Support

How does this plan provide students access to learning based on individual and group needs?

  1. Set students up in heterogeneous groups to allow for higher skilled students to teach lower skilled students.
  2. Work with special education and ELL teachers to create differentiated worksheets to best fit student’s needs.
  1. Provide guided notes and PowerPoint slides print out with note-taking lines.
  2. Include images with vocabulary words to provide a visual translation of the vocabulary.
  3. Read scientific articles aloud to cater to auditory learners.
  4. Videos with closed captioning for hearing impaired.
  5. Graphic organizers to structure writing projects, to help in problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research and brainstorming.
  6. Translated documents for ELL students

 

 

 

 

Reflections on Process of Unit Design

 

Creating this unit was challenging due to the amount of information that must be covered in this 4-week period. I want to make sure students fully understand the content and importance of the information. There will most likely be times where I will have to go over material a second time for clarification and understanding. Having the Big Ideas and Essential Questions outlined helps in the lesson planning process. You can see where you want to be at a certain point and plan accordingly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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